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Home ▸ Catalog ▸ |Roman Coins| ▸ |The Tetrarchy| ▸ |Maximian||View Options:  |  |  |   

Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.

In 286 A.D., Maximian was sent by the Emperor Diocletian against Gaulish rebels, and upon their defeat was raised to the rank of Augustus on 1 April 286. When Diocletian instituted the Tetrarchy, Maximianus was made emperor of the Western empire and seven years later Constantius I joined him as Caesar. Maximianus was forced to abdicate with Diocletian in 305 A.D., but the year after he resumed the throne with his son Maxentius. Forced to abdicate once again at the Conference of Carnute, he resumed the title of Augustus once more in 310 A.D. but was defeated and forced to commit suicide by Constantine the Great.


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The Sisak Hoard of more than 2000 silver argentei, most of them mint-state, plus silver vessels, was found in 1953 near Siscia (Croatia). Still today, nearly all the high grade early argentei of the early tetrarchy on the market came from this hoard. The deposition of the hoard can be placed in the year 295/296.
SH53585. Silver argenteus, Sisak Hoard 2, RIC VI 32b, RSC V 625f, Superb EF, weight 3.092 g, maximum diameter 18.1 mm, die axis 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 294 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS MILITVM (courage of the soldiers), the four princes sacrificing over tripod before the gate of an eight-turreted enclosure; ex H. S. Perlin Co., 1988; small flan crack, fabulous rainbow iridescent toning, near perfect centering, from the 1953 Sisak hoard; SOLD


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In theory, the Roman Empire was not divided by the dual imperium of Diocletian and Maximian. Each emperor had his own court, army, and official residences, but these were matters of practicality, not substance. Imperial propaganda insisted on a singular and indivisible Rome, a patrimonium indivisum. Legal rulings were given and imperial celebrations took place in both emperors' names, and the same coins were issued in both parts of the empire. Diocletian sometimes issued commands to Maximian's province of Africa; Maximian could presumably have done the same for Diocletian's territory.
SH21640. Silver argenteus, RIC VI Rome 40b, RSC V 622g, Choice aMS, full circle strike on both obverse and reverse, obverse struck with a cracked die, weight 2.812 g, maximum diameter 20.1 mm, die axis 0o, Rome mint, 295 - 297 A.D.; obverse MAXIMI-ANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS MILITVM (courage of the soldiers), the four princes sacrificing over tripod before the gate of a six-turreted enclosure, E in exergue; SOLD


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SH32813. Silver argenteus, RIC VI Thessalonica 15b, Choice EF, weight 3.004 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 195o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 302 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS MILITVM (courage of the soldiers), campgate with three turrets, •T•S•Γ• in exergue; full circles strike; rare (R4); SOLD


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SH34717. Silver argenteus, RIC VI Thessalonica 15b, Choice EF, weight 3.004 g, maximum diameter 20.0 mm, die axis 195o, Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint, 302 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse VIRTVS MILITVM (courage of the soldiers), campgate with three turrets, •T•S•Γ• in exergue; full circles strike; rare (R4); SOLD


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SH21403. Silver argenteus, RIC VI Carthago 13b, RSC V 92, VF, weight 3.094 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, die axis 0o, Carthago (near Tunis, Tunisia) mint, 296 - 298 A.D.; obverse MAXIMIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse F ADVENT AVGG NN, Africa standing facing wearing an elephant-head headdress, holding tusk and standard, bull at feet to left, S in exergue (obscured); very rare (R3); SOLD


Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Commemorative issued by Maxentius

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The Temple of Divus Romulus on the Via Sacra, and adjoining the Basilica Maxentius, was unfinished at the time of the usurper Maxentius' downfall in 312 A.D. Both structures were completed under Constantine. The temple presumably was dedicated to the founder of the city rather than to Maxentius' son.
SH34671. Billon follis, RIC VI Ostia 26, Cohen VI 17, SRCV IV 15055, VF, weight 5.394 g, maximum diameter 24.7 mm, die axis 0o, 3rd officina, Ostia (port of Rome) mint, late 309 - Oct 312 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI, veiled head right; reverse AETERNA MEMORIA, domed hexastyle shrine, eagle on top with head left and wings open, right door ajar, MOSTT in exergue; ex Beast Coins architecture collection; rare; SOLD


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Moneta was a surname given to Juno because she was said to have promised the Romans that if they fought only just wars, they would never be in want of money.
SH82555. Billon follis, RIC VI Aquileia 35b, Choice EF, full centering, sharp, weight 8.979 g, maximum diameter 28.2 mm, die axis 0o, Aquileia mint, c. 302 - 303 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse SACRA MONET AVGG ET CAESS NOSTR (the sacred money of our two emperors and two princes), Moneta standing left, scales in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, VI right, AQS in exergue; SOLD


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Quies is the personification of rest and retirement. This coin honors the Senior Emperors Diocletian and Maximian after their abdication in 305 A.D. The obverse dedicates the coin, to our lord Maximian the happy senior emperor. The reverse translates, By the providence of the gods, the restful retirement of the Emperors.
SH51542. Billon follis, RIC VI Cyzicus 23b, gVF, weight 11.442 g, maximum diameter 28.1 mm, die axis 0o, Cyzicus (Kapu Dagh, Turkey) mint, 305 - 307 A.D.; obverse D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left hand; reverse PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia on left standing right, extending right hand to Quies, who is standing left with branch in right and leaning on scepter in left, S - F across fields, K∆ in exergue; scarce; SOLD


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Although Ares was viewed by the Greeks primarily as destructive and destabilizing, worthy of contempt and revulsion, for the Romans, Mars was a father (pater) of the Roman people. He was the father of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. In early Rome, he was second in importance only to Jupiter, and the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius), and in October, which began and ended the season for military campaigning and farming.
SH17189. Billon follis, RIC VI Lugdunum -, Bastien XI 480, VF, near full circle strike, weight 6.514 g, maximum diameter 27.7 mm, die axis 180o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, 307 - 308 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse MARTI PATRI PROPVGNATORI (to Mars the Defending Father), Mars, naked, advancing right, holding spear in right hand, shield in left, cloak flying behind, PLC in exergue; very rare; SOLD


Maximian, 286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D., Issued by Carausius

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A rare British issue by the usurper Carausius, trying to appease the legitimate rulers Diocletian and Maximian. It is likely it was struck shortly after the failed invasion of Maximian in 288 or 289 A.D. which forced him to agree on a temporary peace. This reverse type is unlisted in RIC V for the Camolodunum (Colchester) mint.
RA35057. Billon antoninianus, RIC V-2 Carausius, Diocletian and Maximian -, cf. RIC V-2 Carausius 40 - 41 for the mint and 39 for the type (London); Cohen -, F/VF, weight 3.702 g, maximum diameter 24.6 mm, die axis 180o, Camulodunum (Colchester, England) mint, 292 A.D.; obverse IMP C M A VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, middle reign portrait; reverse VIRTVS AVGG (valor of the two emperors), Mars standing right, nude, helmeted, reversed spear vertical in left, resting right hand on grounded shield, S - P, C in exergue; from the Scott Collection; very rare; SOLD




  




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|OBVERSE |LEGENDS

AVRVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
DIVOMAXIMIANOAVG
DIVOMAXIMIANOIVNAVG
DIVOMAXIMIANOOPTIMP
DIVOMAXIMIANOOPTIMOIMP
DIVOMAXIMIANOPATRIMAXENTIVSAVG
DIVOMAXIMIANOSEN
DIVOMAXIMIANOSENAVG
DIVOMAXIMIANOSENFORTIMP
DIVOMAXIMIANOSENIMP
DIVOMAXIMIANOSOCEROMAXENTIVSAVG
DNMAXIMIANOBSAVG
DNMAXIMIANOBAEATIS
DNMAXIMIANOBAEATISS
DNMAXIMIANOBAEATISSSENAVG
DNMAXIMIANOBAEATISSI
DNMAXIMIANOBAEATISSIM
DNMAXIMIANOBAEATISSIMOSENAVG
DNMAXIMIANOBEATISSIMOSENAVG
DNMAXIMIANOFELICIS
DNMAXIMIANOFELICISS
DNMAXIMIANOFELICISSSENAVG
DNMAXIMIANOFELICISSI
DNMAXIMIANOFELICISSIM
DNMAXIMIANOFELICISSIMOSENAVG
DNMAXIMIANOPFSAVG
DNMAXIMIANOSENINVAVG
IMPCCVALMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPCCVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCMAMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPCMAMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVALMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCMAVALMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPCMAVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCMAVRMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAVRVALMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCMAVRVALMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPCMAVRVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMVALMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCMVALVAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPIAVG
IMPCMAXIMIANVSPPAVG
IMPCVALMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPCVALMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPCVALMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPMAVRMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPMAVRVALMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPMAXENTIVSDIVOMAXIMIANOPATRI
IMPMAXENTIVSDIVOMAXIMIANOSOCERO
IMPMAXIMIANOPFSAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSAVGCOSVII
IMPMAXIMIANVSPAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFEAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFELAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPFAVGCOSVII
IMPMAXIMIANVSPIFEAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPIVSAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPIVSAVGVST
IMPMAXIMIANVSPIVSFAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSPIVSFELIXAVG
IMPMAXIMIANVSSENAVG
MAVRMAXIMIANVSSENAVG
MAXIMIANVSAVG
MAXIMIANVSAVGVSTVS
MAXIMIANVSPAVG
MAXIMIANVSPFAVG
MAXIMIANVSSENPFAVG
VIRTVSMAXIMIANIAVG


REFERENCES|

Bastien, P. Le monnayage de I'atelier de Lyon, Diocletien et ses coregents avant la reforme monetaire (285 - 294). (Wetteren, 1972).
Bastien, P. Le Monnayage de l'Atelier de Lyon, De la Réforme Monétaire de Dioclétien à la fermeture temporaire de l'Atelier en 316 (294 - 316). (Wetteren, 1980).
Calicó, X. The Roman Avrei, Vol. Two: From Didius Julianus to Constantius I, 193 AD - 335 AD. (Barcelona, 2003).
Cohen, H. Description historique des monnaies frappées sous l'Empire Romain, Vol. 6: Macrianus to Diocletian & Maximianus. (Paris, 1886).
Depeyrot, G. Les monnaies d'or de Diocletien à Constantin I (284-337). Moneta 1. (Wetteren, 1995).
Gnecchi, F. I Medaglioni Romani. (Milan, 1912).
Jelocnik, A. The Sisak Hoard of Argentei of the Early Tetrarchy. (Ljubljana, 1961).
King, C.E. & D.R. Sear. Roman Silver Coins, Vol. V, Carausius to Romulus Augustus. (London, 1987).
Mattingly, H., E. Sydenham & P. Webb. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, |Part| II, Probus to Amandus. (London, 1933).
Paolucci, R. & A. Zub. La monetazione di Aquileia Romana. (Padova, 2000).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. IV. Valerian I to Allectus. (Oxford, 1978).
Robinson, A. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, University of Glasgow, Vol. V. Diocletian (Reform) to Zeno. (Oxford, 1982).
Sear, D. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. IV: The Tetrarchies and the Rise of the House of Constantine...Diocletian To Constantine I, AD 284 - 337. (London, 211).
Sutherland, R. & C. Carson. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. VI, From Diocletian's reform to the death of Maximinus. (London, 1967).

Catalog current as of Saturday, December 7, 2019.
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Roman Coins of Maximian